Evaluating differential evolution with penalty function to solve constrained engineering problems

Over the years, several metaheuristics have been developed to solve hard constrained and unconstrained optimization problems. In general, a metaheuristic is proposed and following researches are made to improve the original algorithm. In this paper, we evaluate a not so new metaheuristic called differential evolution (DE) to solve constrained engineering design problems and compare the results with some recent metaheuristics. Results show that the classical DE with a very simple penalty function to handle constraints is still very competitive in the tested problems.



  • A global optimization algorithm for constrained global optimization
  • Employs a penalty function for handling constraints
  • Tested five mutation strategies
  • Tested in: pressure vessel, tension/compression spring
  • Compared to: Adaptive Differential Evolution, Particle Swarm Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Social Behavior algorithm


author = {Melo, Vin\’{\i}cius Veloso de and Carosio, Grazieli Luiza Costa},
title = {Evaluating differential evolution with penalty function to solve constrained engineering problems},
journal = {Expert Syst. Appl.},
issue_date = {July, 2012},
volume = {39},
number = {9},
month = jul,
year = {2012},
issn = {0957-4174},
pages = {7860–7863},
numpages = {4},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2012.01.123},
doi = {10.1016/j.eswa.2012.01.123},
acmid = {2169862},
publisher = {Pergamon Press, Inc.},
address = {Tarrytown, NY, USA},
keywords = {Differential evolution, Engineering design, Metaheuristics, Optimization},

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